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Tatra T3

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T3
200px
Number built 13 991
Built from 1961 - 1990
Length 14,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 mm
Width 2.5 mm
Height 3,050 mm
Weight 16 t
Maximum power 160 kW
Maximum speed 65 km/h
Passenger capacity 23 seats
87 standing
Manufacturer ČKD Tatra

T3 is the name of a tramcar produced by Tatra. During its period of production, between 1960 and 1989, 13 991 multiple units and 122 sidecars were sold worldwide, mostly in Central and Eastern Europe and Soviet Union.

Types Edit

T3 Edit

File:Tatra T3 Plzen.jpg

The design of the T3 had to meet difficult specifications. The car should have the same capacity as its predecessor (the Tatra T2), but be easier to build. In order to achieve this goal for example the vehicle walls were thinner and were fitted with laminate seats instead. The T3 was delivered to all tramway companies in the former Czechoslovakia. It was most numerous in Prague, where over 1.000 vehicles were delivered. The T3 still forms (often in various modernised versions) the backbone of the Czech tram fleet.

T3SU Edit

Tram Kiev

2 trams in Kiev's Kontraktova Square (Type: Tatra CKD T3SU).

(SU for Soviet Union)

As with the T2SU the first T3SU was delivered with the modification of removing the middle door and replacing it with seats. Later cars, however, were delivered with the third door in place. Again the vehicles had a closed operator's compartment and were adapted for the harsh climatic conditions. Altogether 11 368 T3SU were delivered, making it world-wide the largest production of a single type of streetcar. The disadvantage of this, however, was the fact that by producing so many of one type of unit the replacement by more modern cars was slow.

  • The T3SU was delivered from 1963, (first to Moscow) and later to 33 further Soviet cities.

T3SUCS Edit

File:Trams3061-2042.jpg
File:118 1875.JPG
File:WideVents8050.jpg

(SUCS for Soviet Union-modified Czechoslovakia)

Originally the production of the T3 was stopped 1976 and production was concentrated on newer vehicles. The Slovak city Košice, however, ordered two motor coaches, as an exception. Starting from 1985 the production of the replacement type KT8D5 should start, however this was by then obsolete. Further production of T3 would have been too expensive, so instead vehicles of the type T3SU were re-imported and adapted. The closed operator's cab was maintained, the vehicles had all three doors in place and differed from the original T3 only in few details. Traction formation with this vehicles is possible and is sometimes practiced.

T3SU EvolutionEdit

Looking at T3SU trams manufactured in different times, one can notice minor changes both in exterior appearance and interior design.

Exterior details:

  • Narrow passenger windows - disappeared before the year of 1966
  • The narrow window route designators - disappeared about 1969
  • The illumination of the number of route on top - began in 1980s
  • Oval turn indicator at the front became two rectangular lights. The same lamps began to be fitted to the rear - 1985???

small grid in the forward section of the tram from the left side appeared on all T3SU trams manufactured in 1983 and later.

  • Two small red lamps near the tramcar-to-tramcar "control circuit port" both from the front and from behind - 1985???
  • Additional red horizontal lamps from behind

Interior:

  • sofa-style seats - from the early 1960s until the early 1970s.
  • "toilet"-like seats - from early 1970s until the middle of 1980s.
  • Cream colour of saloon ~ with 1977-1978 (now nevertheless all yellow-dark-blue:))

T3D Edit

Daugavpils T3D

Modernized T3D tram in Daugavpils

(D for Deutschland, then DDR)

In Germany (and/or in the former GDR) the first three T3D cars operated started operation in 1964 and 1965 in Dresden. The cars were used in part due to their width of 2.50 m. They operated as single cars or as multiple units (Motor+Motor, Motor+Motor+Trailer) and/or as mini trams (Motor+Trailer). The use of trailer cars was due to the use of original Czech T3 electrical equipment, which had enough power to support trailer cars. However, due to reduced available power, the maximum speed of the streetcar reached only 55 km/h, instead of the usual 65 km/h.

Only German and Yugoslav networks had trailer cars. The car was designated as B3D and had the same body as T3D. Today, only Chemnitz uses T3s in full service, having T3D-M (modified).

T3YU Edit

File:Osijek Tram.jpg

(YU for Yugoslavia)

From 1967 onwards, vehicles supplied to Yugoslavia differed from the standard type T3 by having different pantographs and trucks. In addition, trailer cars were used, as in the GDR. Beside two Czechoslovakian and one Soviet tram networks, the vehicles were the only narrow profile cars of the type.

T3R Edit

(R for Romania)

Romania was instructed by Comecon at the end of the 1960s to order RA cars. The first vehicles came in 1967 to the city of Galaţi and differed from the Czechoslovak vehicles by having different electrical equipment, necessary for the network's 750 V DC voltage. Since the car boxes were built too wide for use elsewhere, the cars remain in Galaţi.

Same name has type shortly manufactured in 1997.

Modernized Tatra-T3 tramsEdit

File:Brno, Česká, Tramvaj T3P.jpg
File:Bratislava trams.jpg

In most Czech cities and in some foreign cities such as Bratislava, Moscow, Riga and Odessa, Tatra-T3 trams became very common pieces of equipment. As a result the service personnel and maintenance workers became very good with repairing and servicing the equipment. This served as one of the reasons (the other being the expense of buying new vehicles) for modifying the existing Tatra-T3 trams, rather they buying newer cars.

The modernization normally includes:

  • Restoration of the car body
  • Digital/Electronic destination sign installation
  • Acoustic information system
  • Installation of new traction motors
  • Thyristor-Controlled traction system for the motors.
  • Re-design of the interior, which varies by city and transit authority.
  • Pantograph replacements (also depends on the transport authority)

More radical modernization includes insertion of a low floor section.

Production Edit

14,113 trams were produced and delivered to [1]:

City Year T3 T3SUCS T3SU T3D B3D T3YU B3YU T3R Total
Template:Flagicon Barnaul 1967-1985 0 0 444 0 0 0 0 0 444
Template:Flagicon Bratislava 1964-1989 58 130 0 0 0 0 0 0 188
Template:Flagicon Brno 1963-1989 109 53 0 0 0 0 0 0 162
Template:Flagicon Karl-Marx-Stadt (today Chemnitz) 1966-1988 0 0 0 132 62 0 0 0 194
Template:Flagicon Dnipropetrovsk 1968-1987 0 0 370 0 0 0 0 0 370
Template:Flagicon Dniprodzerzhynsk 1972-1986 0 0 183 0 0 0 0 0 183
Template:Flagicon Donetsk 1967-1987 0 0 251 0 0 0 0 0 251
Template:Flagicon Galati 1971-1974 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 50
Template:Flagicon Grozny 1981-1986 0 0 70 0 0 0 0 0 70
Template:Flagicon Irkutsk 1967-1968 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 30
Template:Flagicon Izhevsk 1966-1986 0 0 270 0 0 0 0 0 270
Template:Flagicon Kharkiv 1967-1987 0 0 735 0 0 0 0 0 735
Template:Flagicon Kiev 1964-1987 0 0 923 0 0 0 0 0 923
Template:Flagicon Košice 1963-1989 97 89 0 0 0 0 0 0 184
Template:Flagicon Kramatorsk 1967 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
Template:Flagicon Krasnodar 1980-1986 0 0 115 0 0 0 0 0 115
Template:Flagicon Kryvyi Rih 1986-1987 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 50
Template:Flagicon Kursk 1966-1987 0 0 278 0 0 0 0 0 278
Template:Flagicon Liberec 1965-1987 20 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 54
Template:Flagicon Mariupol 1967-1975 0 0 32 0 0 0 0 0 32
Template:Flagicon Moscow 1963-1987 0 0 2069 0 0 0 0 0 2069
Template:Flagicon Most 1967-1987 9 67 0 0 0 0 0 0 76
Template:Flagicon Nizhny Novgorod 1978-1986 0 0 220 0 0 0 0 0 220
Template:Flagicon Novokuznetsk 1967-1986 0 0 215 0 0 0 0 0 215
Template:Flagicon Odessa 1966-1987 0 0 484 0 0 0 0 0 484
Template:Flagicon Olomouc 1966-1987 30 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 69
Template:Flagicon Oryol 1976-1985 0 0 85 0 0 0 0 0 85
Template:Flagicon Osijek 1966-1982 0 0 0 0 0 26 4 0 30
Template:Flagicon Ostrava 1965-1987 97 127 0 0 0 0 0 0 224
Template:Flagicon Pilsen 1964-1989 48 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
Template:Flagicon Prague 1960-1989 901 292 0 0 0 0 0 0 1193
Template:Flagicon Pyatigorsk 1967-1987 0 0 117 0 0 0 0 0 117
Template:Flagicon Riga 1974-1987 0 0 243 0 0 0 0 0 243
Template:Flagicon Rostov-on-Don 1967-1987 0 0 405 0 0 0 0 0 405
Template:Flagicon Samara 1964-1986 0 0 619 0 0 0 0 0 619
Template:Flagicon Sarajevo 1967-1969 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 20
Template:Flagicon Schwerin 1973-1988 0 0 0 115 56 0 0 0 171
Template:Flagicon Tashkent 1983-1985 0 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 18
Template:Flagicon Ufa 1966-1987 0 0 360 0 0 0 0 0 360
Template:Flagicon Ulyanovsk 1966-1986 0 0 401 0 0 0 0 0 401
Template:Flagicon Tula 1965-1986 0 0 401 0 0 0 0 0 401
Template:Flagicon Tver 1967-1986 0 0 306 0 0 0 0 0 306
Template:Flagicon Vladikavkaz 1972-1987 0 0 129 0 0 0 0 0 129
Template:Flagicon Volgograd 1967-1987 0 0 425 0 0 0 0 0 425
Template:Flagicon Volzhsky 1967-1980 0 0 75 0 0 0 0 0 75
Template:Flagicon Voronezh 1977-1986 0 0 209 0 0 0 0 0 209
Template:Flagicon Yekaterinburg 1964-1986 0 0 530 0 0 0 0 0 530
Template:Flagicon Zaporizhia 1966-1987 0 0 304 0 0 0 0 0 304
Total 1369 911 11368 247 118 46 4 50 14113

Note: This is production list. Public transport companies may sell used trams to other companies, thus number of cities where are (or were) these trams may be higher.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Tatra T3 deliveries. Strassenbahnen-Online. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.

External linksEdit

Template:Commons

Tatra trams

Standard trams T1 - T2 - T3 - T4 - T5A5 - T5B6 - T5C5 - T6A2 - T6A5 - T6B5 - T6C5 - T7B5
Articulated trams K1 - K2 - K5AR - KT4 - KTNF6 - KTNF8 - KT8D5
Low-floor trams RT6N1 - RT6S - RT8M

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